He writes that America's founders were not immigrantsbut settlerssince British settlers came to North America to establish a new society, as opposed to migrating from one existing society to another one as immigrants do. Later peoples who joined the culture present in the original British colonies, already established by these settlers, were indeed immigrants.
Our first task is therefore to provide a clear definition of equality in the face of widespread misconceptions about its meaning as a political idea. Thus, to say e. Two non-identical objects are never completely equal; they are different at least in their spatiotemporal location.
Here usage might vary. In the case of descriptive use of equality, the common standard is itself descriptive, e.
A prescriptive use of equality is present when a prescriptive standard is applied, i. The standards grounding prescriptive assertions of equality contain at least two components. On the one hand, there is a descriptive component, since the assertions need to contain descriptive criteria, in order to identify those people to which the rule or norm applies.
The question of this identification — who belongs to which category? On the other hand, the comparative standards contain something normative — a moral or legal rule, in the example, the U. Such a rule constitutes the prescriptive component Westenchap.
Sociological and economic analyses of in- equality mainly pose the questions of how inequalities can be determined and measured and what their causes and effects are.
In contrast, social and political philosophy is in general concerned mainly with the following questions: Such is the case in this article as well. Equality essentially consists of a tripartite relation between two or several objects or persons and one or several qualities.
Two objects a and b are equal in a certain respect if, in that respect, they fall under the same general terminus.
Every comparison presumes a tertium comparationis, a concrete attribute defining the respect in which the equality applies — equality thus referring to a common sharing of this comparison-determining attribute.
There is another source of diversity as well: As Temkinargues, various different standards might be used to measure inequality, with the respect in which people are compared remaining constant. The difference between a general concept and different specific conceptions Rawlsp.
Depending on which procedural principle one adopts, contrary answers are forthcoming. Both equality and inequality are complex and multifaceted concepts Temkinchap. In any real historical context, it is clear that no single notion of equality can sweep the field.
But they believe that there is also a common underlying strain of important moral concerns implicit in it Williams Above all it serves to remind us of our common humanity, despite various differences cf. In this sense, egalitarians tend to think of egalitarianism as a single coherent normative doctrine — but one in any case embracing a variety of principles.
Following the introduction of different principles and theories of equality, I will return in the last section of this article to the question how best to define egalitarianism and the value of equality.
Principles of Equality and Justice Equality in its prescriptive usage has, of course, a close connection with morality and justice in general and distributive justice in particular.
From antiquity onward, equality has been considered a constitutive feature of justice. On the history of the concept, cf. AlbernethyBennBrownDannThomson Throughout history, people and emancipatory movements use the language of justice to pillory certain inequalities.
But what exactly is the connection between equality and justice, i. The role and correct account of equality, understood as an issue of social justice, is itself a difficult philosophical issue. To clarify this, philosophers have defended a variety of principles and conceptions of equality, many of which are mentioned in the following discussion.
This section introduces four well known principles of equality, ranging from highly general and uncontroversial to more specific and controversial. Different interpretations of the role of equality in a theory of justice emerge according to which of the four following principles and which measure has been adopted.
Through its connection with justice, equality, like justice itself, has different justitianda, i. These are mainly actions, persons, social institutions, and circumstances e. These objects of justice stand in an internal connection and order that can here only be hinted at.
Justice is hence primarily related to individual actions.More Essay Examples on. Equality Is Merely a Concept. In America. We as American citizens are taught by the Declaration of Independence that All work forces are created equal - Equality Is Only A Concept In America Essay introduction.
(Irish, ). Equality is present in America mostly in the concept of the term, equality. When Thomas Jefferson wrote All Men Are Created Equal, he should have said All Men Should Be Created Equal.
Public opinion of same-sex marriage in the United States has shifted rapidly since polling of the American people regarding the issue first began on an occasional basis in the s and a regular basis in the s, with support having consistently risen while opposition has continually fallen.
National support rose above 50% for the first time in and has not gone below that mark since then. A Personal Opinion That Equality Is Only a Concept in America PAGES 3. WORDS 1, View Full Essay. More essays like this: american dream, equality, american federalism.
Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University. Exactly what I needed. - . It would be a mistake to go beyond this conception, he argued. Lester Frank Ward agreed when he suggested that "equality of opportunity is the only means of determining the degree of merit" 21 among individuals.
Equality of opportunity must be viewed in practical functional terms, they believed.
The Challenges to America's National Identity () is a treatise by political scientist and historian Samuel P. Huntington (–). The book attempts to understand the nature of American identity and the challenges it will face in the future.