At the time of Julius Caesar's birth the political, social, economic, and moral problems created by the acquisition of a Mediterranean empire in the 3d and 2d centuries B. The senatorial oligarchy that ruled Rome was proving inadequate to deal with these new challenges. It could not control the armies and the generals and was unwilling to listen to the pleas of the Italian allies for equal citizenship and of the provinces for justice.
Domestically, Roman politics was divided between politicians known as optimates and populares. The optimates tended to be more conservative,    defended the interests of the upper class   and used and promoted the authority of the Senate;  the populares advocated reform in the interests of the masses   and used and promoted the authority of the Popular Assemblies.
Both Marius and Sulla distinguished themselves in the Social War, and both wanted command of the war against Mithridates, which was initially given to Sulla; but when Sulla left the city to take command of his army, a tribune passed a law transferring the appointment to Marius. Sulla responded by marching his army on Rome the first time ever this happened and an influence for Caesar in his later career as he contemplated crossing the Rubiconreclaiming his command and forcing Marius into exile, but when he left on campaign Marius returned at the head of a makeshift army.
Marius died early in 86 BC, but his followers remained in power.
Cinna was already dead, killed by his own soldiers in a mutiny. Caesar, as the nephew of Marius and son-in-law of Cinna, was targeted. Sulla gave in reluctantly, and is said to have declared that he saw many a Marius in Caesar.
He served with distinction, winning the Civic Crown for his part in the siege of Mytilene. Lacking means since his inheritance was confiscated, he acquired a modest house in the Suburaa lower-class neighbourhood of Rome. He became known for his exceptional oratory, accompanied by impassioned gestures and a high-pitched voice, and ruthless prosecution of former governors notorious for extortion and corruption.
Even Cicero praised him: During this time, Caesar also wrote poems and practiced his public speaking. Marcus Junctus, the governor of Asiarefused to execute them as Caesar demanded, preferring to sell them as slaves,  but Caesar returned to the coast and had them crucified on his own authority, as he had promised while in captivity  —a promise the pirates had taken as a joke.
As a sign of leniency, he first had their throats cut. He then proceeded to Rhodes, but was soon called back into military action in Asia, raising a band of auxiliaries to repel an incursion from Pontus.
On his return to Rome he was elected military tribunea first step on the cursus honorum of Roman politics. The war against Spartacus took place around this time 73—71 BCbut it is not recorded what role, if any, Caesar played in it. He was elected quaestor for 69 BC,  and during that year he delivered the funeral oration for his aunt Juliawidow of Marius, and included images of Marius, unseen since the days of Sulla, in the funeral procession.
His own wife Cornelia also died that year. He requested, and was granted, an early discharge from his duties, and returned to Roman politics.
On his return in 67 BC,  he married Pompeiaa granddaughter of Sulla. This was a gamble as it placed him in early debt but allowed voters traveling to the city to see the work he had done. He was also suspected of involvement in two abortive coup attempts.
In 63 a tribune, Titus Labienusprosecuted the elderly optimate senator Gaius Rabirius for the killing, 37 years previously, of the populist tribune Lucius Appuleius Saturninuswho had been declared a public enemy by the Senate after a candidate for the consulship had been murdered during an election.
Caesar was one of the two judges, and Suetonius says he had bribed Labienus to bring the prosecution. During his appeal, a procedural technicality was contrived - the praetor Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer took down the military flag from the Janiculum hill, indicating foreign invasion - and proceedings were adjourned.
The prosecution was never resumed. The purpose of the trial is obscure, but it has been interpreted as a challenge to the use of the senatus consultum ultimum. Pontifex Maximus[ edit ] The same year, Caesar ran for election to the post of Pontifex Maximuschief priest of the Roman state religion, after the death of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Piuswho had been appointed to the post by Sulla.
There were accusations of bribery by all sides. Caesar is said to have told his mother on the morning of the election that he would return as Pontifex Maximus or not at all, expecting to be forced into exile by the enormous debts he had run up to fund his campaign.
During the debate, Caesar was passed a note. Marcus Porcius Catowho would become his most implacable political opponent, accused him of corresponding with the conspirators, and demanded that the message be read aloud.
Scandal[ edit ] Praetorship[ edit ] While praetor in 62 BC, Caesar supported Metellus Nepos, now tribune, in proposing controversial legislation that would recall Pompey and his army in order to quell the rising disorder in Italy.
Caesar attempted to continue to perform his duties, only giving way when violence was threatened.
The Senate was persuaded to reinstate him after he quelled public demonstrations in his favour. He was caught and prosecuted for sacrilege. Caesar gave no evidence against Clodius at his trial, careful not to offend one of the most powerful patrician families of Rome, and Clodius was acquitted after rampant bribery and intimidation.
Nevertheless, Caesar divorced Pompeia, saying that "the wife of Caesar must be above suspicion.But Julius Caesar’s military and political domination of Rome – as popular general, consul and finally dictator – made the switch from republican to imperial government possible.
Born to power Caesar was born into the Roman political ruling class, on 12th or 13th July, BC. The Life of Julius Caesar History of Julius Caesar, Biography, Pictures, Quotes. Beware the leader who bangs the drums of war in order to whip the citizenry into a patriotic fervor, for patriotism is indeed a double-edged sword.
An introduction to Caesar's life and public career. Julius Caesar by T. P. Wiseman. How Caesar changed the world by starting the transformation of the Roman republic into a quasi-monarchy. Caesar as a Leader. Julius Caesar: The Life and Times of the People's Dictator by Luciano Canfora.
Focuses on what we actually know about Caesar, the man of politics and war. A SHORT BIOGRAPHY OF JULIUS CAESAR Gaius Julius Caesar: His Place in History A politician of the populares tradition, he formed an unofficial triumvirate with Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus which dominated Roman politics for several years.
Gaius Julius Caesar. Gaius Julius Caesar ( B.C.) was a Roman general and politician who overthrew the Roman Republic and established the rule of the emperors..
At the time of Julius Caesar's birth the political, social, economic, and moral problems created by the acquisition of a Mediterranean empire in the 3d and 2d centuries B.C.
began to challenge the Roman Republic. Julius Caesar #00 – An Introduction To The Show December 1st, This is a brief introduction to the series recorded in , four years after the show started.