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Urdu — another form of Hindustani — acquired linguistic prestige in the later Mughal period sand underwent significant Persian influence. Modern Hindi and its literary tradition evolved towards the end of the 18th century.
After independence, the government of India instituted the following conventions: On 14 Septemberthe Constituent Assembly of India adopted Hindi written in the Devanagari script as the official language of the Republic of India replacing Urdu's previous usage in British India. As such, on the 50th birthday of Beohar Rajendra Simha on 14 Septemberthe efforts came to fruition following the adoption of Hindi as the official language.
Under Articlethe official languages of the Union has been prescribed, which includes Hindi in Devanagari script and English: The form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals. Provided that the President may, during the said period, by order authorize the use of the Hindi language in addition to the English language and of english to hindi writing app Devanagari form of numerals in addition to the international form of Indian numerals for any of the official purposes of the Union  Article of the Indian constitution states It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, the forms, style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule, and by drawing, wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary, primarily on Sanskrit and secondarily on other languages.
It was envisioned that Hindi would become the sole working language of the Union Government by per directives in Article 2 and Article with state governments being free to function in the language of their own choice.
However, widespread resistance to the imposition of Hindi on non-native speakers, especially in South India such as the those in Tamil Nadu led to the passage of the Official Languages Act ofwhich provided for the continued use of English indefinitely for all official purposes, although the constitutional directive for the Union Government to encourage the spread of Hindi was retained and has strongly influenced its policies.
In practice, the official language commissions are constantly endeavouring to promote Hindi but not imposing restrictions on English in official use by the union government. At the state level, Hindi is the official language of the following Indian states: Similarly, Hindi is accorded the status of official language in the following Union Territories: National language status for Hindi is a long-debated theme.
Inthe Gujarat High Court clarified that Hindi is not the national language of India because the constitution does not mention it as such. Hindi is quite easy to understand for some Pakistaniswho speak Urdu, which, like Hindi, is part of Hindustani. Apart from this, Hindi is spoken by the large Indian diaspora which hails from, or has its origin from the "Hindi Belt" of India.
Comparison with Modern Standard Urdu Main articles: Hindi—Urdu controversyHindustani phonologyand Hindustani grammar LinguisticallyHindi and Urdu are two registers of the same language and are mutually intelligible. Hindi is the most commonly used official language in India.
Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan and is one of 22 official languages of India.
The splitting of Hindi and Urdu into separate languages is largely motivated by politics, namely the Indo-Pakistani rivalry. Devanagari script Hindi is written in the Devanagari script, an abugida.
Devanagari consists of 11 vowels and 33 consonants and is written from left to right. Unlike for Sanskrit, Devanagari is not entirely phonetic for Hindi, especially failing to mark schwa dropping in spoken Standard Hindi. Devanagari transliteration The Government of India uses Hunterian transliteration as its official system of writing Hindi in the Latin script.
Hindustani etymology and List of Sanskrit and Persian roots in Hindi Traditionally, Hindi words are divided into five principal categories according to their etymology: These are words which are spelled the same in Hindi as in Sanskrit except for the absence of final case inflections.
Amongst nouns, the tatsam word could be the Sanskrit non-inflected word-stem, or it could be the nominative singular form in the Sanskrit nominal declension.
Such words are typically earlier loanwords from Sanskrit which have undergone sound changes subsequent to being borrowed. These are native Hindi words derived from Sanskrit after undergoing phonological rules e. These are words that were not borrowings but do not derive from attested Indo-Aryan words either.
Belonging to this category are onomatopoetic words or ones borrowed from local non- Indo-Aryan languages. These include all loanwords from non-indigenous languages.
The most frequent source languages in this category are PersianArabicEnglish and Portuguese. Hindi also makes extensive use of loan translation calqueing and occasionally phono-semantic matching of English. This process usually involves compensatory lengthening of vowels preceding consonant clusters in Prakrit, e.
Sanskrit Much of Modern Standard Hindi's vocabulary is borrowed from Sanskrit as tatsam borrowings, especially in technical and academic fields.
Excessive use of tatsam words sometimes creates problems for native speakers. They may have Sanskrit consonant clusters which do not exist in native Hindi, causing difficulties in pronunciation. Usually these neologisms are calques of English words already adopted into spoken Hindi.
Medieval Hindi literature is marked by the influence of Bhakti movement and the composition of long, epic poems. It was primarily written in other varieties of Hindiparticularly Avadhi and Braj Bhashabut to a degree also in Khariboli, the basis for Modern Standard Hindi.
During the British RajHindustani became the prestige dialect.Halkomelem / h ɒ l k ə ˈ m eɪ l əm / (Halq̓eméylem in the Upriver dialect, Hul̓q̓umín̓um̓ in the Island dialect, and hən̓q̓əmin̓əm̓ in the Downriver dialect) is a language of various First Nations peoples in British Columbia, ranging from southeastern Vancouver Island from the west shore of Saanich Inlet northward beyond Gabriola Island and Nanaimo to Nanoose Bay and.
Empower your PC with Lipikaar Hindi Typing Software: Lipikaar is a typing method which allows users to type in Hindi using a regular English keyboard.5/5(1). Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani srmvision.com written in the Devanagari script is one of the official languages of India, along with the English language.
It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India. Oxford Dictionaries puts language information at your fingertips, wherever you are – on your PC, a mobile device, or even when using a search engine or social media app.
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