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Android version history The name Andrew and the noun Android share the Greek root andros, which means man. Andy Rubin picked android.
That eventually became the name of the company he founded, and the name of the operating system they developed. Perlman refused a stake in the company, and has stated "I did it because I believed in the thing, and I wanted to help Andy.
Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system. On November 5,the Open Handset Alliancea consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTCMotorola and Samsungwireless carriers such as Sprint and T-Mobileand chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instrumentsunveiled itself, with a goal to develop "the first truly open and comprehensive platform for mobile devices".
In SeptemberInformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony. Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat, with the first few Android versions being called " Cupcake ", " Donut ", " Eclair ", and " Froyo ", in that order.
During its announcement of Android KitKat inGoogle explained that "Since these devices make our lives so sweet, each Android version is named after a dessert", although a Google spokesperson told CNN in an interview that "It's kind of like an internal team thing, and we prefer to be a little bit — how should I say — a bit inscrutable in the matter, I'll say".
The series was described as having "played a pivotal role in Android's history by introducing It 205 week 7 check point analysis of electronic payment systems software iterations and hardware standards across the board", and became known for its " bloat-free " software with "timely He left Google in August to join Chinese phone maker Xiaomi.
List of features in Android Interface Android's default user interface is mainly based on direct manipulationusing touch inputs that loosely correspond to real-world actions, like swiping, tapping, pinching, and reverse pinching to manipulate on-screen objects, along with a virtual keyboard.
Internal hardware, such as accelerometersgyroscopes and proximity sensors are used by some applications to respond to additional user actions, for example adjusting the screen from portrait to landscape depending on how the device is oriented,  or allowing the user to steer a vehicle in a racing game by rotating the device, simulating control of a steering wheel.
Android homescreens are typically made up of app icons and widgets ; app icons launch the associated app, whereas widgets display live, auto-updating content, such as a weather forecastthe user's email inbox, or a news ticker directly on the homescreen.
This status bar can be "pulled" down to reveal a notification screen where apps display important information or updates. A Recents screen lets users switch between recently used apps.
Android software development and Google Play Applications " apps "which extend the functionality of devices, are written using the Android software development kit SDK  and, often, the Java programming language. Google Play Store is the primary application store installed on Android devices that comply with Google's compatibility requirements and license the Google Mobile Services software.
Due to the open nature of Android, a number of third-party application marketplaces also exist for Android, either to provide a substitute for devices that are not allowed to ship with Google Play Store, provide applications that cannot be offered on Google Play Store due to policy violations, or for other reasons.
F-Droidanother alternative marketplace, seeks to only provide applications that are distributed under free and open source licenses. When an application is not in use the system suspends its operation so that, while available for immediate use rather than closed, it does not use battery power or CPU resources.
While gaining support for bit platforms, Android was first made to run on bit x86 and then on ARM Some hardware components are not required, but became standard in certain classes of devices, such as smartphones, and additional requirements apply if they are present.
Some other hardware was initially required, but those requirements have been relaxed or eliminated altogether. For example, as Android was developed initially as a phone OS, hardware such as microphones were required, while over time the phone function became optional. In addition to running on smartphones and tablets, several vendors run Android natively on regular PC hardware with a keyboard and mouse.
Android software development The stack of Android Open Source Project Android is developed by Google until the latest changes and updates are ready to be released, at which point the source code is made available to the Android Open Source Project AOSP an open source initiative led by Google.
Update schedule See also: Android version history Google announces major incremental upgrades to Android on a yearly basis. Compared to its primary rival mobile operating system, Apple 's iOSAndroid updates typically reach various devices with significant delays.
Except for devices within the Google Nexus and Pixel brands, updates often arrive months after the release of the new version, or not at all. The lack of after-sale support from manufacturers and carriers has been widely criticized by consumer groups and the technology media. One of those components, Google Play Servicesis a closed-source system-level process providing APIs for Google services, installed automatically on nearly all devices running Android 2.
With these changes, Google can add new system functionality through Play Services and update apps without having to distribute an upgrade to the operating system itself.
As stated by Bloomberg: Hiroshi Lockheimer, the Android lead, admitted that "It's not an ideal situation", further commenting that the lack of updates is "the weakest link on security on Android".
Wireless carriers were described in the report as the "most challenging discussions", due to carriers' slow approval time due to testing on their networks, despite some carriers, including Verizon and Sprinthaving already shortened their respective approval times.
HTC 's then-executive Jason Mackenzie called monthly security updates "unrealistic" inand Google was trying to persuade carriers to exclude security patches from the full testing procedures. In a further effort for persuasion, Google shared a list of top phone makers measured by updated devices with its Android partners, and is considering making the list public.
Mike Chan, co-founder of phone maker Nextbit and former Android developer, said that "The best way to solve this problem is a massive re-architecture of the operating system", "or Google could invest in training manufacturers and carriers "to be good Android citizens"".
Project Treble separates the vendor implementation device-specific, lower-level software written by silicon manufacturers from the Android OS framework via a new "vendor interface".
With Treble, the new stable vendor interface provides access to the hardware-specific parts of Android, enabling device makers to deliver new Android releases simply by updating the Android OS framework, "without any additional work required from the silicon manufacturers.
As ofAndroid targets versions 4.The Forest Service and other federal, tribal, state, and local government agencies work together to respond to tens of thousands of wildfires annually. Each year, an average of more than 73, wildfires burn about 7 million acres of federal, tribal, state, and private land and more than 2, structures.
Analysis of Electronic Payment Systems Resource: Ch. 9 of Essentials of Management Information Systems Answer the following questions in to words: . Apr 28, · It/ Analysis of Electronic Payment Systems. Analysis of Electronic Payment Systems 1/29/14 IT/ Name and describe various categories of e-commerce.
There are three major electronic commerce categories. There is business-to-customer (B2C) e-commerce, which involves retailing products and services to individual shoppers. Introduction to Health Care Management Edited by Sharon B. Buchbinder, RN, PhD Professor and Chair CHAPTER 7 Financing Health Care and Health Insurance Nancy H.
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September 7, , May 7, , September 7, , May 7, , September 7, , May 7, , by PM local time of applicant organization. Applicants are encouraged to apply early to allow adequate time to make any corrections to errors found in the application .