According to Descartes, before we can describe the nature of reality as is done in metaphysics or say what it means for something to be or exist which is the focus of ontologywe must first consider what we mean when we say we know what reality, being, or existence is. He suggests that it is pointless to claim that something is real or exists unless we first know how such a claim could be known as a justified true belief.
See Article History Alternative Title: Although he produced a stream of philosophical and dramatic works he wrote more than 30 playsas well as shorter pieces in reviews and periodicals, Marcel never completed a doctoral dissertation and never held a formal position as a professor, instead working mostly as a lecturer, writer, and critic.
He also developed a keen interest in classical music and composed a number of pieces.
Eschewing a structured, more systematic approach, Marcel developed a method of discursive probing around the edges of central life experiences that was aimed at uncovering truths about the human condition.
Indeed, several of his early works are written in a diary format, an unusual approach for a philosopher. Marcel always insisted on working with concrete examples from ordinary experience as the initial basis for more abstract philosophical analysis.
His work is also significantly autobiographical, a fact that reflected his belief that philosophy is as much a personal quest as a disinterested impersonal search for objective truth. Other notable works are: Basic philosophical orientation Marcel was influenced by the phenomenology of the German philosopher Edmund Husserl and by his rejection of idealism and Cartesianismespecially early in his career.
Being and having, mystery and problem Marcel developed his position by introducing a number of important philosophical distinctions for which he became well known.
Among them is that between being and having, which was central to his thought. The distinction applies to a number of areas in life, including the experience of human embodiment, the nature of intersubjective relations, and the nature of the human person.
Nor, however, can I regard my bodily experiences as the sum total of my life. This analysis then opens up the realms of being and having. Marcel acknowledged that, although it is possible to adopt this attitude toward human beings, it is a distortion of the nature of the self. The realm of being, on the other hand, is one in which experience is unified before conceptual analysis, in which the individual participates in reality and has access to experiences that are later distorted at the level of abstract thinking.
Marcel introduced another of his famous distinctions, that between mystery and problem, to further elaborate the notions of being and having. He tended to divide reality into the world of mystery and the world of problems the world of being and the world of having.
These realms further correspond to a distinction between two types of reflection, secondary and primary. In The Mystery of Being, Marcel defined a problem as a task that requires a solution that is available for everybody.
What is distinctive about a problem is that it requires an abstraction at the conceptual level from the lived experience of the person who is dealing with the problem. Marcel illustrated this point with an example from his school days, when he was unable to figure out how the wires in an electrical circuit joined together to produce a current.Universal Methodic Doubt Harvard Case Study Solution and Analysis of Harvard Business Case Studies Solutions – Assignment HelpIn most courses studied at Harvard Business schools, students are provided with a case study.
Descartes' Methodic Doubt. René Descartes () is an example of a rationalist. Methodic doubt, in Cartesian philosophy, a way of searching for certainty by systematically though tentatively doubting everything. First, all statements are classified according to type and source of knowledge— e.g., knowledge from tradition, empirical knowledge, and mathematical knowledge.
René Descartes was a French mathematician and philosopher during the 17th century. He is often considered a precursor to the rationalist school of thought, and his vast contributions to the fields of mathematics and philosophy, individually as well as holistically, helped pushed Western knowledge forward during the scientific revolution.
Preface to the 'Home Education' Series.
The educational outlook is rather misty and depressing both at home and abroad. That science should be a staple of education, that the teaching of Latin, of modern languages, of mathematics, must be reformed, that nature and handicrafts should be pressed into service for the training of the eye and hand, that boys and girls must learn to write English.
The word certitude indicates both a state of mind and a quality of a proposition, according as we say, "I am certain", or, "It is certain".
This distinction is expressed in the technical language of philosophy by saying that there is subjective certitude and objective certitude. It is worthy of notice, as regards the use of English terms, that Newman reserves the term certitude for the state.